The Deva-Dragon Eight

Yama (the Lord of Death) and Yamantaka (Defeater of Death)


Yama (Sanskrit: यम) or Yamarāja (यमराज) is the god of death, belonging to an early stratum of Vedic mythology. In Sanskrit, his name can be interpreted to mean "twin". In the Zend-Avesta he is called "Yima". According to the Vishnu Purana, Yama is the son of the sungod Surya and of Sanjna, the daughter of Visvakarman, sometimes called "Usha". He is the brother of the current Manu Vaivasvatha and of his older sister Yami, which H. H. Wilson indicates to mean the Yamuna river. According to Harivamsa Purana her name is Daya. In the Vedas, Yama is said to have been the first mortal who died. By virtue of precedence, he became the ruler of the departed, called "Lord of the Pitrs". There is a one-of-a-kind temple in Srivanchiyam, Tamil Nadu, India, dedicated to Yama.

Mentioned by the Buddha in the Pali canon, Yama subsequently entered Buddhist, Chinese, Tibetan, Korean, Vietnam, Japanese mythology as a wrathful god under various transliterations. (Wikipedia)
In East Asian mythology, Yama (Sanskrit: यम) is a dharmapala (wrathful god) said to judge the dead and preside over the Narakas ("Hells" or "Purgatories") and the cycle of rebirth.
Although based on the god Yama of the Hindu Vedas, the Buddhist Yama has developed different myths and different functions from the Hindu deity. He has also spread far more widely and is known in every country where Buddhism is practiced, including China, Korea, Japan, Vietnam. (Wikipedia)

Yamāntaka (Sanskrit: यमान्तक Yamāntaka or Vajrabhairava Tibetan: གཤིན་རྗེ་གཤེད་, རྡོ་རྗེ་འཇིགས་བྱེད།, Wylie: gshin rje gshed; rdo rje 'jigs byed; Japanese: 大威徳明王 Daitokumyōō; Chinese: 大威德金剛; pinyin: Dà Wēidé Jīngāng; Mongolian: Эрлэгийн Жаргагчи Erlig-jin Jarghagchi) is an iṣṭadevatā of the Anuttarayoga Tantra class popular within the Gelug school of Tibetan Buddhism. Yamāntaka is seen as a wrathful manifestation of Mañjuśrī, the bodhisattva of wisdom, and in other contexts functions as a dharmapala.
Within Buddhism, "terminating death" is a quality of all buddhas as they have stopped the cycle of rebirth, samsara. Yamantaka, then, represents the goal of the Mahayana practitioner's journey to enlightenment, or the journey itself: in awakening, one adopts the practice of Yamāntaka – the practice of terminating death. (Wikipedia)

 

Yama and Yamantaka

Yama the Lord of Death

Yama the Lord of Death

Yama the Lord of Death
He should be of dark color, resembling the rain-cloud, with two arms and a buffalo head, fire-colored eyes and sharp side-tusks. He stands on his buffalo mount, under which a body is seen lying. In his right hand he holds a danda, a skull-headed club. In his left, He holds a noose of rope (pasa).
www.flickr.com/PetWerewolf :  "Yama is one of the dharmapalas, or protectors of Buddhist doctrine.
His fearsome appearance helps him to combat malevolent demons and other enemies of Buddhism...
Originally, Yama was a Hindu god. Like many other Hindu gods, he has been adopted and worshipped by the Buddhists, together with all his original functions.
A Buddhist sign on his abdomen, a chakra or wheel, which is a mark of Buddhist doctrine, shows that the statue is part of Buddhist religion."

Image source: photobucket.com

Yama is generally considered a wrathful deity.

Yamantaka

Yamantaka

Yamantaka

Image source: commons.wikimedia.org: Yamantaka

The following story describes the relationship between Yama and Yamantaka:

A holy man was told that if he meditated for the next 50 years, he would achieve enlightenment.

The holy man meditated in a cave for 49 years, 11 months and 29 days, until he was interrupted by two thieves who broke in with a stolen bull.

After beheading the bull in front of the hermit, they ignored his requests to be spared for but a few minutes, and beheaded him as well.

In his near-enlightened fury, this holy man became Yama, the god of Death, took the bull's head for his own, and killed the two thieves, drinking their blood from cups made of their skulls.
Still enraged, Yama decided to kill everyone in Tibet.

The people of Tibet, fearing for their lives, prayed to the bodhisattva Manjusri, who took up their cause. He transformed himself into Yamnntaka, similar to Yama but ten times more powerful and horrific.
In their battle, everywhere Yama turned, he found infinite versions of himself. Manjusri as Yamantaka defeated Yama, and turned him into a protector of Buddhism.

 

 

Yama the Lord of Death

Yama the Lord of Death

Yama the Lord of Death

Image source: en.wikipedia.org

Yama

Yama

Yama

Image source: www.flickr.com: Yama


 

Yamantaka Vajrabhairav, British Museum.

Yamantaka Vajrabhairav, British Museum.

Yamantaka Vajrabhairav, British Museum

Image source: en.wikipedia.org

Yamantaka

Yamantaka

Yamantaka from the 18th Century
Yamantaka is the wrathful emanation of Manjushri (Bodhisattva of wisdom) with 16 legs and 34 arms.
www.exoticindiaart.com :  "To tame Yama, Manjushri adopted the same form, adding to it eight other faces and a multiple array of arms, each holding fearful and deadly weapons.
He further sprouted a number of legs, and surrounded himself with a vast host of terrifying beings.
To confront death, he thus manifested the form of death itself, magnified to infinity.
Death (Yama) saw himself endlessly mirrored back to himself, infinitely outnumbered by himself. Death was literally scared to death."

Image source: www.flickr.com

 

Yamantaka Vajrabhairav, Palace Museum, Beijing, China.

Yamantaka Vajrabhairav, Palace Museum, Beijing, China.

Yamantaka Vajrabhairav, Palace Museum, Beijing, China.

Manufactured in Qing Dynasty, bronze, 93 cm high, now held in Palace Museum, Beijing, China.
大威德金刚像,制造于清代,铜制,高93厘米,现藏于北京故宫博物院
大威德怖畏金刚是藏传佛教格鲁派所修的主尊。密宗教法云:“有伏恶之势,谓之大威;有护善之功,谓之大德。”大威大德,故名大威德。 大威德怖畏金刚是文殊菩萨的化身,佛教认为可以以其凶暴威猛的气势慑伏一切魔障。

Image source: www.dpm.org.cn   www.dpm.org.cn
Reference: baidu.com 百度  

Vajrabhairava (Yamāntaka)

Vajrabhairava (Yamāntaka)

Vajrabhairava (Yamāntaka), The Mok Collection In Holland
Vajrabhairava, also called as Yamāntaka, was after the intervention of Manjushri in his form that Yama’s wrathful rampage was temporarily subdued. He is highly respected by Gelukpa School in Tibetan Buddhism.
The figure of Vajrabhairava is very complex among Tibetan Buddhist deities. According to Buddhist doctrine, he has nine heads, thirty four arms and sixteen feet. He is shown with nine heads--the principal one being the head of a buffalo standing for the Yama, the midst one of a Jina, symbolizing he is an incarnation of Amitabha, and the top one of Manjusriand The principal two hands embrace his consort, and the other hands respectively hold a bell, a vajra, a chopper, a sword, a water-jar, an arrow, a noose, an iron hook, a trident, an umbrella and a canopy. His sixteen legs specially stand on various beats, birds, eight Vaisravana and eight female Vidyā-rāja. He tramples in lunging to the left on a large number of various beings placed on a lotus pedestal with beaded borders. This statue, which is of delicate artistic characteristics, can be ranked as excellent work of Tibetan Buddhist sculptures.
大威德金剛,又稱怖畏金剛,是文殊菩薩為降伏妖魔而示現的忿怒化身,是藏傳佛教格魯派主修的護法神,也是藏傳佛教諸神中造型最複雜的一種。此尊造像九頭、三十四臂、十六足,依佛教含義所制。九頭表示九種鎮壓閻王的經咒,正中最大最高的頭為有水牛角的大水牛頭,象徵閻王,最高的頭為文珠菩薩本像,象徵慈善和平。三十四臂排列左右呈扇面展開,結構佈局合理。十六足象徵十六空,足踏八獸、八飛禽、八天王、八女明王。左展姿站立於蓮座上,高大蓮座與展開的手臂在造像整體佈局上和諧統一,完全符合造像度量經。整像通體鎏金,面部泥金彩繪,寶冠、瓔珞、釧環皆鑲嵌有綠松石,做工精細,品相完整,所持法器無一遺失,十分難得。

Image source: www.epailive.com   Copy

 

 

Yamantaka

Yamantaka

#1: Yamantaka

Image source: photobucket.com

Yamantaka

Yamantaka

#2: Yamantaka

Image source: photobucket.com

Yamantaka

Yamantaka

#3: Yamantaka

Image source: photobucket.com

Dharmapala Vajrabhairava (Yamantaka)

Dharmapala Vajrabhairava (Yamantaka)

#4: Dharmapala Vajrabhairava (Yamantaka)

Image source: www.flickr.com


Yama Dharmaraja

Yama Dharmaraja

#5: Yama Dharmaraja

Image source: photobucket.com

Yama, il Dio della Morte

Yama, il Dio della Morte

#6: Yama, il Dio della Morte

Image source: photobucket.com

Yama on buffalo (Hinduism)

Yama on buffalo (Hinduism)

#7: Yama on buffalo (Hinduism)

Image source: en.wikipedia.org

Shiva defends his devotee Markandeya from Yama, who is seated on his bull. (Hinduism)

Shiva defends his devotee Markandeya from Yama, who is seated on his bull. (Hinduism)

#8: Shiva defends his devotee Markandeya from Yama, who is seated on his bull. (Hinduism)

Image source: en.wikipedia.org


Enma (Yama), Nariaiji temple, Japan

Enma (Yama), Nariaiji temple, Japan

#9: Enma (Yama), Nariaiji temple, Japan

Image source: commons.wikimedia.org

Laughing En'ma Daio at Saimyoji Temple, Japan

Laughing En'ma Daio at Saimyoji Temple, Japan

#10: Laughing En'ma Daio at Saimyoji Temple, Japan

Image source: commons.wikimedia.org

Enma Dai-Oh, Buddhist hell amusement park

Enma Dai-Oh, Buddhist hell amusement park

#11: Enma Dai-Oh,
Buddhist hell amusement park in Second Life virtual world

Image source: www.flickr.com

The Great King Enma

The Great King Enma

#12: The Great King Enma
as depicted in a wallscroll from the Azuchi-Momoyama period found in Nara, Japan.

Image source: en.wikipedia.org


Yanluo (Yama) and Chinese Hell

Yanluo (Yama) and Chinese Hell

#13: Yanluo (Yama) and Chinese Hell (Link)

Image source: woku.com

Yanluo (Yama) King of hell

Yanluo (Yama) King of hell

#14: Yanluo (Yama) King of hell

Image source: baidu.com

Largest Yanluo statue in the world at Fengdu - The Ghost City,

Largest Yanluo statue in the world at Fengdu - The Ghost City,

#15: Largest Yanluo statue in the world at Fengdu - The Ghost City, Sichuan China

Image source: en.wikipedia.org

Additional image   Reference: Fengdu County   Link

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#16:  Yama & wheel of life

#16: Yama, the Lord of Death,
holding the Wheel of Life

Image source: baidu.com

 

 

One of the Ten Kings of the Underworld

One of the Ten Kings of the Underworld 

One of the Ten Kings of the Underworld
Painting on paper, 18.0 x 26.8 cm. Yarkhoto, 8th -9th century
Museum fur Indische Kunst (MIK III 6327 )


Apart from the richly painted miniatures found in the Turfan oasis, which as we have seen are mostly from Manichaean manuscripts, the site yielded two other kinds of book illustration: wood blocks, which deal with Buddhist themes and accompany texts in either Chinese or Uighurian; and black-and-white or lightly colored drawings relating to various texts, such as the one which is the subject of this illustration and No. 135. (Next image)

As von Gabain (1973a) has established, the text here concerns the cult of Kshitigarbha, the bodhisattva who rescues repentant souls from hell, which was widespread in Central Asia. Dated not earlier than the eighth century A.D., the text is entitled The Ten Kings Institute the Seven. It tells how after death each person must appear before the tribunal of the ten underworld kings in succession, every seventh day before each of the first seven kings, before the next two kings after one hundred days and one year respectively, reaching the tenth king finally after three years.

As in an earthly court, the offenses of the deceased — the evil he has done and the good he has failed to do — are read out to him from a charge-sheet, that is, a scroll. He is berated by each of the Ten Kings, menaced by their myrmidons, locked in the pillory, and even tortured In view of this highly unenviable position, it is necessary — as the text enjoins again and again — for pious relatives to earn merit (punya) for him by copying sacred texts and . . . commissioning "pictures" or "sculptures." If succor is given to a dead person in this way, even the last of the Ten Kings will be inclined to show mercy. Kshitigarbha appears to him . . . and rescues him from this prison; indeed, he even escorts the deceased to Amitabha in his Western Paradise. (Gabain 1973a, pp. 48f)

Kshitigarbha in this text appears as the great savior, and seems to have had a special connection with the cult of the dead. Illustrated copies of the Central Asian text, made in Tun-huang in the tenth century, are evidence for the assertion that a whole series of drawings in Berlin's Turfan collection belongs to a work of this kind.

In the painting shown here we see a bearded man, one of the Ten Kings, sitting at a table. A label in the middle of his cap, from which a veil is suspended, bears the inscription "king" in Chinese. His wide-sleeved overgarment is Chinese; the undergarment is belted with a sash. The charge-sheet in the form of a scroll lies on the table in front of him. At the bottom left is the head of a small figure — one of the youths who, the text tells us, bring a pair of scales to weigh the good and bad deeds of the deceased against each other.

Lady in Waiting to One of the Ten Kings

Lady in Waiting to One of the Ten Kingst 

Lady in Waiting to One of the Ten Kings
Painting on paper, 12.6 x 2.8 cm. Toyok, 8th -9th century
Museum fur Indische Kunst (MIK III 47)


The retinue of each of the Ten Kings includes, we are told, ladies in waiting of noble rank, of whom this is one. She faces left, presumably looking toward her underworld master. Her hair is piled up in an elaborate coiffure tied with a reddish ribbon. She wears a red undergarment, a yellow-and-brown dress with a panel in blue silk, and a wide, reddish sash. Round her neck is a simple chain. The costume of the ladies in waiting, like that of the Ten Kings, is not Uighurian, nor is it purely Chinese in style.

 

 

Dancing Yama and his consort, Yama-guchi

Yama-guchi Yama-guchi

Dancing Yama and his consort, Yama-guchi

Image source: commons.wikimedia.org: Yama--> media.photobucket.com: Yama-guchi