Samudra manthan (The churning of the ocean of milk)


In Hinduism, Samudra manthan or Churning of the Ocean of Milk is one of the best known episodes in the Hindu mythology. The story appears in the Bhagavata Purana, the Mahabharata and the Vishnu Purana.
Samudra mathanam — Mathanam is the Sanskrit equivalent of Manthan meaning 'to churn'.
Sagar manthan — Sagar is another word for Samudra, both meaning an ocean or large water body.
Kshirsagar manthan — Kshirsagar means the ocean of milk. Kshirsagar = Kshir (milk) + Sagar (ocean).
(Wikipedia)

 

Samudra manthan (The churning of the ocean of milk) - The legend


Samudra manthan: The churning of the ocean of milk
Samudra manthan (The churning of the ocean of milk)
Image source: en.wikipedia.org

Indra, the King of Devas (gods), while riding on an elephant Airawat, came across Sage Durvasa who offered him a special garland given to him by the god Shiva. Indra accepted the garland, placing it on the trunk of the elephant as a test to prove that he was not an egoistic god. The elephant, knowing that Indra had no control over his own ego, threw the garland to the ground. This enraged the sage as the garland was a dwelling of Sri (fortune) and was to be treated as prasada. Durvasa cursed Indra and all devas to be bereft of all strength, energy, and fortune.

In battles that followed this incident, the Devas were defeated and Asuras (demons) led by King Bali gained control of the universe. Devas sought help from the god Vishnu Who advised them to treat asuras in a diplomatic manner. Devas formed an alliance with asuras to jointly churn the ocean for the nectar of immortality and to share it among them. However, Vishnu told Devas that He would arrange that they alone obtain the nectar.

The churning of the Ocean of Milk was an elaborate process. Mount Mandara was used as the churning rod, and Vasuki, the king of serpents, who abides on Shiva's neck, became the churning rope. The demons demanded to hold the head of the snake, while the gods taking advice from Vishnu, agreed to hold its tail. As a result the demons were poisoned by fumes emitted by Vasuki. Despite this, the gods and demons pulled back and forth on the snake's body alternately, causing the mountain to rotate, which in turn churned the ocean. However, once the mountain was placed on the ocean, it began to sink. Vishnu, in the form of a turtle Kurma, came to their rescue and supported the mountain on his back.

 

Shiva consumed the poison in an act to protect the universe
Shiva consumed the poison in an act to protect the universe
Samudra Manthan as a Roadmap for Sadhana (a spititual practice)
Image source: www.exoticindiaart.com

The Samudra Manthan process released a number of things from the Milk Ocean. One product was the lethal poison known as Halahal. (In some versions of the story, this poison escaped from the mouth of the serpent king as the demons and gods churned.) This terrified the gods and demons because the poison was so powerful that it can destroy all of creation. Then the gods approached Shiva for protection. Shiva consumed the poison in an act to protect the universe, and his wife Parvati pressed her hand on Shiva's throat to save the universe. As a result, The color of Shiva's neck turned blue. For this reason, Lord Shiva is also called Neelakanta (the blue-throated one; "neela" = "blue", "kantha" = "throat" in Sanskrit).

 

Fourteen Ratnas (gems or treasures)

Samudra Manthan showing Fourteen Ratnas (gems or treasures)
Samudra Manthan showing Fourteen Ratnas (gems or treasures)
Image source: japanesemythology.wordpress.com  Copy

Sagar Manthan showing Fourteen Ratnas (gems or treasures)
Sagar Manthan showing Fourteen Ratnas (gems or treasures)
Image source: commons.wikimedia.org

All kinds of herbs were cast into the ocean and fourteen Ratnas (gems or treasures) were produced from the ocean and were divided between asuras and gods. Though usually the Ratnas are enumerated as 14, the list in the scriptures ranges from 9 to 14 Ratnas. Most lists include: According to the quality of the treasures produced, they were accepted by Vishnu, the devas, and the asuras. There were three categories of Goddesses which emerged from the ocean;

Lakshmi, the Goddess of Fortune and Wealth - who accepted Vishnu as Her eternal consort.
Apsaras, various divine nymphs like Rambha, Menaka, Punjisthala etc. - chose the demigods as their companions
Varuni or Sura, goddess and creator of alcohol - taken - somewhat reluctantly (she appeared dishevelled and argumentative) - accepted the demons.

Likewise, three types of supernatural animals appeared;
Kamadhenu or Surabhi(Sanskrit:kāmadhuk), the wish-granting divine cow - taken by Vishnu, and given to sages so ghee from her milk could be used in sacrifices.
Airavata, and several other elephants, taken by Indra, leader of the devas.
Uchhaishravas, the divine 7-headed horse - given to the demons.

There were three valuables;
Kaustubha, the most valuable jewel in the world, worn by lord Vishnu.
Parijat, the divine flowering tree with blossoms that never fade or wilt - taken to Indraloka by the devas.
Sharanga, A powerful bow - symbolic of the demon's belligerence.

Additionally produced were;
Chandra, the moon which adorned Shiva's head
Dhanvantari, the doctor of the gods with Amrita the nectar of immortality. (At times, considered as two different Ratnas)
Halahala, the poison swallowed by Shiva

This list varies from Purana to Purana and is also slightly different in the epics, the Ramayana and Mahabharata. Lists are completed by adding the following Ratnas:
Shankha Vishnu's conch
Jyestha - the goddess of misfortune
the umbrella taken by Varuna
the earrings given to Aditi, by her son Indra
Kalpavriksha plant
Nidra or sloth

Here is a famous chant describing the 14 Ratnas from the Churning of the Milky Ocean.
लक्ष्मीः कौस्तुभपारिजातकसुराधन्वन्तरिश्चन्द्रमाः। ::
गावः कामदुहा सुरेश्वरगजो रम्भादिदेवाङ्गनाः। ::
अश्वः सप्तमुखो विषं हरिधनुः शङ्खोमृतं चाम्बुधेः।::
रत्नानीह चतुर्दश प्रतिदिनं कुर्यात्सदा मङ्गलम्। ::

"Lakshmeeh kaustubhapaarijaatakasuraadhantarischandramaah, Gaavah kaamaduhaa sureswaragajorambhadidevaanganaah, Ashwah saptamukhovisam haridhanuh sankhomrtam chaambudheh, Ratnaaneeha chaturdasa pratidinam kuryaatsadaa mangalam."

 

The nectar of immortality

Shiva consumed the poison in an act to protect the universe
Mohini, the female form of Vishnu holding the pot of Amrit which she distributes amongst all gods leaving aside demons.
Image source: commons.wikimedia.org
Reference: en.wikipedia.org: Amrita

Finally, Dhanvantari, the heavenly physician, emerged with a pot containing Amrita, the heavenly nectar of immortality. Fierce fighting ensued between Devas and Asuras for the nectar. To protect the nectar from Asuras, the divine Garuda took the pot, and flew away from the battle-scene. While Garuda was in his flight over planet Earth, it is believed that four drops of nectar fell at four places - Prayag (Allahabad), Haridwar, Ujjain and Nasik.

This legend is the basis for the belief that these places acquired a certain mystical power and spirituality.A Kumbh Mela is celebrated at the four places every twelve years for this reason. People believe that after bathing there during the Kumbha mela, one can get the primeval heaven and moksha(Sanskrit:mokṣha).

Devas (demigods) appealed to Vishnu, who then took the form of Mohini and as a beautiful and enchanting damsel, Mohini distracted the asuras, took the amrita, and distributed it among the Devas, who drank it. Asura RahuKetu, disguised himself as a deva and drank some nectar. Due to their luminous nature, the sun god Surya and the moon god Chandra noticed the switching of sides. They informed Mohini. But before the nectar could pass his throat, Mohini cut off his head with her divine discus, the Sudarshana Chakra.But as the nectar had gone down his throat he did not die. From that day, his head was called Rahu and body was called Ketu. Later Rahu and Ketu became planets. The story ends with the rejuvenated Devas defeating the asuras.

 

 


Other versions of Samudra manthan (The churning of the ocean of milk)

 

Samudra Manthan - The Churning of the Milk Ocean

Samudra manthan: The churning of the ocean of milk

Samudra Manthan - The Churning of the Milk Ocean  

Image source and reference: #4: Samudra Manthan - The Churning of the Milk Ocean


 

Story of ocean churning

Story of ocean churning

Story of ocean churning

Image source and reference: sahajshruti.wordpress.com

 

 

Vishnu Kurmavatara and the churning of the milk ocean

Vishnu Kurmavatara and the churning of the milk ocean

#8: Vishnu Kurmavatara and the churning of the milk ocean

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Sculpture on Suvarnabhumi Airport Bangkok

Sculpture on Suvarnabhumi Airport Bangkok

#9: Sculpture on Suvarnabhumi Airport Bangkok

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Samudra manthan (The churning of the ocean of milk) at Angkor Wat & Preah Khan, Cambodia

Churning of the Sea of Milk, Angkor Wat

Churning of the Sea of Milk, Angkor Wat

#1: Churning of the Sea of Milk, Angkor Wat

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The churning of the ocean of milk

The churning of the ocean of milk

#2: The churning of the ocean of milk

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Samudra Manthan or (Devanagari: समुद्र मंथन)

Samudra Manthan or (Devanagari: समुद्र मंथन)

Samudra Manthan or (Devanagari: समुद्र मंथन) - The churning of the ocean of milk

Image source: www.asisbiz.com and commons.wikimedia.org

Churning of the Ocean of Milk

Churning of the Ocean of Milk

#4: Churning of the Ocean of Milk

Image source: www.flickr.com


 

Churning of the Ocean of Milk

Churning of the Ocean of Milk

#5: Churning of the Ocean of Milk

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Scenes from The Churning of the Ocean of Milk (at Preah Khan)

Scenes from The Churning of the Ocean of Milk (at Preah Khan)

#6: Scenes from The Churning of the Ocean of Milk (at Preah Khan)

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